Music is an art characterized by direct and strong emotional impact that provides human creativity with incomparable possibilities. It is well known that music can affect the quality of human life. It can cause various emotions and feelings. However, despite the fact that the influence of music on humans has been much studied, researchers from various scientific institutions all over the world continue to conduct experiments in order to learn more about its peculiarities. It became clear that music can affect living organisms, both positively and negatively. Human lives are continuously permeated with different sounds. Music is a part of this global polyphony. The influence of music on the spiritual world has long been observed. In addition, music is one of the most powerful means of communication. It has a huge impact on a person’s mind, emotions, body and soul. It is well known that music can bring different tone to various human conditions such as excitement, fear, instinct of destruction, and aggression. Music therapy promotes the development of potential qualities of a person and the recovery of functions by achieving higher degree of intra- or interpersonal integration and a higher quality of life.Music therapy can be a means of prevention, rehabilitation or treatment. It is important to use the effects of music to promote mental health in the early stages of life. Music can help to understand the surrounding reality, natural beauty, perfect poetry, painting, theater, history. One who knows how to listen and feel music can get a real aesthetic impression and enjoy meeting with musical art. Therefore, it is important to teach children to rely on their minds and souls, enrich their experience with the musical works. Manali Oak states that “music had a positive effect on the interpersonal skills of an individual. Lack of confidence and very less or no desire to learn is most often the reason behind a failure.” Music is one of the most potential approaches to go deep down to one’s heart, eliminate the scars left by past, illuminate the direction toward where we want to be and bring people eternal happiness. Music Therapy: Mental Healing of Music The use of music for therapeutic purposes dates back to prehistoric era as music was an integral part of the magic, religious and healing rituals. However, the first written monument, which refers to the influence of music on the human body, is Egyptian papyruses discovered by the English archaeologist Petrie in 1889. The healers of ancient Greece and Egypt had extensive knowledge in this area. Pythagoras was the first who scientifically explained the therapeutic effect of music. Greek physician Hippocrates treated insomnia and epilepsy with music. However, ancient traditions and experience were subsequently lost. The revival of music therapy began only in the 19th century. In 1899, neurologist James L. Korninh conducted the first study using music to treat patients. The first scholarly works that examine the influence of music on people appeared in the late XIX - early XX centuries. In medicine, music therapy was used by French psychiatrist Eskirol. German physicians used it in the treatment of gastric ulcers, and the Swiss used music in the treatment of lung tuberculosis. The use of music and sound as the anesthetic was applied to dental and surgical practice. This practice became basic in music therapy after World War II. As an academic discipline, music therapy was first introduced in 1918 at Columbia University. Its developer Margaret Anderson was a musician from the UK. In 1975, Center for Music Therapy was founded in London. Everett Thayer Gaston is considered to be the father of music therapy. The psychologist actively participated in the process of music therapy development. He described the qualities of music that can be used with therapeutic purpose. He stated that music “can benefit handicapped and ill persons by helping them to change their behavior by acquiring new or better behavior”. Everett Thayer Gaston outlined common principles and ideas of music therapy, stating that all people need aesthetic experience and expression; religion and music are related; “music is derived from tender emotions; music is a source of gratification; the potency of music is greatest in the group; music is communication; the cultural matrix determines the mode of expression”. Today, music therapy is more or less intensively used in treatment of various neuropsychiatric and somatic diseases in a handful of developed countries of the world. There is no person who does not like to listen to music. One likes classical music, other tend to melodic one, third eagerly absorb rhythmic or dance melodies. The fact that music can affect the mood is probably noticed by everyone, but not everyone knows that it has healing properties. According to Elizabeth Landau, different people with their personalities, preferences and personal histories of listening to particular kind of music will have different experiences when exposed to a particular piece of music. According to Silvia Francesca Maglione: the peculiarity of music is that while poetry and the literature must rely on the rational transport to inspire an emotion, since they are mediated from words, music omits this stage and points directly to stage of communicating emotions. Music does not pass through rationality to express its essence, it crosses right to our emotions. Music therapy is the controlled use of music in treatment, rehabilitation, education and upbringing of children and adults who suffer from somatic and psychiatric diseases. “Music has been found to have many therapeutic and protective effects among adults in a variety of healthcare settings”. Music can also be used to strengthen and maintain balance of aura. During XX century in England, France, Germany and Holland, music therapy centers were created. Their task was to treat a variety of diseases ranging from neurosis and depression to gastrointestinal and cardiovascular diseases with the help of specially selected tunes. The sound of each musical instrument affects certain system of human body. According to “Music Therapy: The Healing Power of Song”, “memories stored in various brain structures are retrievable through the process of listening to music. These memories produce changes in brain chemistry”. It is supposed that drum normalizes the rhythm of the heart and circulatory system work; flute expands, cleans and restores the lungs work; violin restores peace of mind, leads to compassion; harp has a positive effect on the heart; saxophone stimulates sexual desire; cymbals clean and normalize the liver. Susan Mandel et al. conducted a research into the effectiveness of using music therapy and found that it had a positive impact on cardiac rehabilitation. Moreover, Darcy D. Walworth found out that music had positive effect on patients undergoing magnetic resonance imaging by shortening the length of time for MRI scans. Musical accompaniment during meals affects the process of digestion. Thus dinner with Mozart helps to digest. However, rhythmic beats of contemporary music, especially fast-paced one, has bad effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Indeed, with the instinctive moves of the jaw that copy the rhythm of hits the food is somehow masticating. Good music that sounds during dinner improves appetite and has a positive effect on the secretion of gastric juice. Slow leisurely meal with the classic music facilitates digestion. Moreover, music affects body temperature. Bad creaking doors rumble and wind noise can cause fear. Hollywood horror films widely use these effects of music in the scenes of uncertainty, insecurity and violence that appear on the screen. All sounds and music provide subtle but powerful influence on the body temperature. Loud music with a strong rhythm may increase body temperature for a few degrees while slow music with a subtle rhythm can reduce it. Music changes the perception of time. One can choose the music which accelerates or slows down the activity. Marches could accelerate the move. Classical music and baroque music provoke a slow behavior. Music of High Romantic or modern orchestra helps alleviate the tense atmosphere. In some cases, music may compel the time to stop. Music can help appease strong destructive emotions such as aggression. The music of Stravinsky's ballet “The Rite of Spring” is suited to do this. At the premiere of the work, which took place in 1913 in Paris, music excited the audience who began to talk loudly and made them form a group of supporters and opponents, almost coming to blows. Music can improve memory and learning abilities. Doing exercises with music improves physical condition. Listening to light music (Mozart or Vivaldi) as a background helps some students to concentrate over long periods of time. Laurence O'Donnell states, “students can improve test scores is by listening to certain types of music such as Mozart's Sonata for Two Piano's in D Major before taking a test. This type of music releases neurons in the brain which help the body to relax.” Works of Mozart are considered to be universal. Investigation of the positive impact of his music in various fields is staggering. According to Silvia Francesca Maglione, “the commonly known “Mozart effect” is a phenomenon that suggests the improvement on the performance of spatio-temporal reasoning and short-term memory through the listening of complex music, such as Mozart’s two-piano concertos.” Different songs cause different feelings that result from reactions because of the variety of lyrics, voices and instruments. Bob Dylan’s “Knockin' on Heaven's Door” is characterized by a simple guitar rhythm that is very casual. The words of the song are about the man who decided to give up after a long fighting. However, the most effective is Dylan’s manner of singing. It is extremely expressive and genuine. This expressiveness combined with simple instrument has great effect on the human’s feelings. Another example is Don McLean’s “American Pie”. This song was created after the death of Buddy Holly. The song has a great influence as it represents the changes in music and politics from innocence to violence. The song represents McLean’s depression. American Pie starts in mono and then goes to stereo in order to show the transition from the age of mono to stereo age. The Beatles’ “Blackbird” describes fighting for civil rights. The instruments include birdsong and vocal overdub, guitar, tapping. This combination and lyrics influence everyone’s consciousness. John Lennon’s “Imagine” denies religion, private property, borders and calls for personal freedom and peace. The power of Lennon’s voice and the melody of piano call everyone to go beyond personal beliefs to a common dream. Every song has its own specific influence on the human. Specific notes affect certain organs: sound frequency that corresponds the note C influences mainly the stomach and pancreas; D has detrimental effect on the gallbladder and liver; E is important for the organs of sight and hearing; F for urinary system; G for the function of the heart; A for lungs and kidneys; B influences the amount of energy and warms the body. According to Ankur Deka, “today music therapy is taught up to doctoral and post doctoral level in many universities and institutions around the world. Music Therapy can rightfully be considered as a branch of alternative medicine.” In the twentieth century, music therapy started gaining popularity in America and Europe. Its remarkable soothing and relaxing properties were used to enhance the action of the medicine. Sounds can cure cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, depression, nervous disorders. Moreover, factor of music perception depends on the national and cultural identity. For example, Europeans will not always feel comfortable listening to oriental motifs. Moreover, the prolonged exposure to such music may cause severe mental disorders in them. At the same time, Asians will hardly like Western music. Popular music, which is believed to reflect the spirit of time, has a beneficial effect on the human body. Russian and French chanson lifts the mood, decreases blood pressure, orders sleep and appetite, and normalizessugar level in blood. These rhythms are most favorable to the human body. They positively influence vitality, emancipate, and relieve nervous overload. However, hard rock has negative impact on humans. Hard rock uses the rhythm and frequency of alternation of light volume.The overabundance of bass or treble seriously injures the brain. The musicians and singers of hard rock style dress defiant and depressing (imitation of the servants of Satan). Their behaviorinculcates violence. Texts of songs directly call for violence and praising of Satan. Rock music promotes drug abuse. It was recorded that the adolescents used to go to the streets and crush everything after concerts of rock bands. The perception of music, as well as other works of art, carries an element of subjectivity, because each person has his particular personality, his own experience, and his individual features of the mental functions of cognitive and emotional spheres. Music is not just a certain combination of sounds, harmonies and rhythms. Its sound is a complex process that involves psycho-emotional, aesthetic, cultural, social and other factors.
From its very inception music has always accompanied people. Depending on its sound, music may cause a general relaxation of the body or acceleration of energy processes. It is alleged that music can affect skin receptors, activate nervous system, reduce pain tolerance, regulate hormone that reduces stress, affect heart rate, raise and lower blood pressure, reduce muscle tension and improve coordination. An integrative discipline that studies the healing effects of music on human health is called music therapy. A particular sound that comes into resonance with a mental state of a person can both enhance the feeling of depression or sadness and switch attention to the other side. Music is the key that helps to restore lost balance and create harmony between body and soul. Music affects almost all human emotions. Its influence excites, soothes, inspires and elevates, causing tears and joy. Music is a partner of not only teenagers but mature people. The impact of modern music on the world outlook, character and personal qualities provides guidance on the further future. Music therapy is a psychotherapeutic method that uses music as a means of correction. Numerous techniques provide an integral and isolated use of music as a leading factor. It is important to improve one’s knowledge of music therapy and its impact on human health in order to provide effective methods of treatment of various diseases.
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